Get to know the Social Welfare Program through the Adoption of the Social Village
The essence of social welfare development is an effort to improve the quality of social welfare of individuals, families, groups and communities that have dignity, where everyone is able to take a role and carry out its functions in life. Development of social welfare is organized as a form of social investment that is carried out jointly by the entire community, the business world and the government/regional government. Social welfare development must be carried out in a planned, integrated, aligned, gradual, sustainable and equitable manner and can be felt by People with Social Welfare Problems (PMKS) or the Social Welfare Service Recipients (PPKS) and society in general in order to realize an improvement in the quality of life with social justice .
Quoting the opinion of Edi Suharto, Ph.D. in his book entitled Building Communities to Empower the People, he described the concept of social welfare development as outlined in the vision and mission, at least there are three big agendas that need to be carried out.
First, the tasks of the social welfare program need to be reconstructed or realigned (rebounded) so that they are clearer and measurable. In line with the three focuses of the social welfare program, namely social services, social protection and community empowerment. The program vision can refer to these three points with the concept of 'serving, protecting and empowering the community'. With this vision, so that it can formulate its core business in a measurable way by having a "trademark" that is easily recognized by the wider community.
Second, mainstreaming the discipline and profession of social work into policies and programs. Just as the teaching profession is the 'host' in the world of education, the social welfare program needs to determine the occupation as the 'host' and the basis of professionalism that illuminates each of its concepts and strategies. Without clarity, social welfare programs will be seen as "ordinary" institutions or programs whose activities can be carried out by anyone, anywhere and anytime.
Third, social welfare programs are not only focused on rowing activities in development boats, but must also be involved in steering activities i.e social policy formulation at the macro level, so that they are not just seen as a development sector that only handles "social waste" or "dirty dishes".
The local government in this case must be able to read and make community empowerment programs that are planned, integrated, connected and measurable in terms of the various indicators built, thus not only focusing on meeting the daily needs of service recipients, but how to grow the spirit of the community to develop its potential and manage opportunities to realize the social welfare of its life. Villages have a lot of potential, but very little is managed in a planned and systematic way, almost all villages are formed by village-owned enterprises, unproductive lands are abandoned due to mining, many people's oil palm plantations are neglected, village fund management is not all integrated with strategic planning, program control and evaluation has not been effective yet, all of this has happened due to ineffective planning and the lack of knowledge and information from the community on many matters. This condition provides an answer that realizing social welfare requires a strong vision and mission that is integrated with the concept of community empowerment.
Social Welfare Concept
In Indonesia, the concept of social welfare has long been known. It already exists in the Indonesian constitutional system. Starting from the Republic of Indonesia Law Number 6 of 1974 concerning Basic Provisions on Social Welfare until the publication of the Republic of Indonesia Law Number 11 of 2009 concerning Social Welfare, the concept of social welfare has been discussed. It is explained that social welfare is meant as an order of life and social, material and spiritual livelihood which is filled with a sense of safety, decency, and inner and outer peace that allows every citizen to carry out efforts to fulfill spiritual, physical and social needs as well as possible. good for oneself, family and society by upholding human rights or obligations in accordance with Pancasila.
In the 1945 Constitution, social welfare is a special title which contains Article 33 concerning the economic system and Article 34 concerning the state's concern for weak groups (the poor and neglected children) and the social security system. This means that social welfare is actually a platform for the economic system and social system in Indonesia (in Suharto, 2002; Swasono, 2004). In principle, the presence of the state is in the context of providing social welfare for the people with various policies, strategies, programs and activities so that the people are able to run their wheels of life well. Thus, the government must be able to formulate its development policies proportionally between physical development and social development based on social justice.
Community Empowerment through the Social Village Adoption Program (ADES)
Starting from the conception of a national social welfare program echoed by Edi Suharto, an expert in social work, the writer as a social instructor tries to come up with the idea of developing a Social Village Adoption program (ADES) as leverage within the framework of realizing social welfare development based on village potential that is integrated with community empowerment programs. The ADES program has a holistic thematic approach with planning and budgeting that is integrated into the strategic planning document (Renstra) and work plans of regional apparatuses so that they are connected with other technical programs. As the main policy in integrating activity engineering, ADES is made a social assisted village which is of course the leading sector whose main role in its success is social workers, social counseling workers and community self-help mobilizers supported by volunteers or village field assistants. The program's long-term achievement targets for 5 (five) years are detailed in its implementation through annual targets in the work plans of regional apparatuses.
ADES is used as a barometer in implementing various social service programs, community empowerment and social protection including social security. The success of program implementation will be easier to measure, explain, evaluate and control because all activities are focused on planned locations and targets, so it will be easier for external parties to supervise. The ADES program consists of several action steps, namely:
a. Social mapping.
Social mapping can be seen as an approach to dealing with social problems. Social mapping is a systematic process of depicting society and involving the collection of data and information about the community, including its profile and social problems that exist in that community. While the main function of mapping is to supply data and information for the implementation of community empowerment programs. One quick social mapping strategy can be started by conducting a SWOT analysis (strength, weakness, opportunity, treath) involving all elements of the village administration as subjects and objects of the ADES program. The aim is to identify various local potentials, social problems and other village-owned supporting capacities, so that sources of data and information will be recorded to be used as material for planning a village development program as a whole. The mapping of village potentials and problems includes all material and immaterial aspects available in the village. The description of strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities and threats in the village will be explored through potential mapping based on existing data and facts.
b. Determination of the Village as a social assisted village.
Villages whose potentials and problems have been mapped in order to gain legitimacy as a locus of empowerment based on certain criteria, of course, must be recognized and support the vision and mission of the regional head, so that the policy directions that will be set forth in program designs and activities of regional apparatuses get access to local government planning and budgeting. It is confirmed that the designation of a village as an ADES village has gone through a tiered election before it is determined by a regional head decision.
c. Social Assistance.
As a community empowerment strategy, social assistance plays an important role in exploring village social potential. In the book 'Realizing the Welfare of the Nation' by Professor Gunawan Sumodiningrat it is explained that there are five important activities that can be carried out such as providing motivation, raising awareness and capacity training, self-management, mobilizing resources, and building and developing networks. Meanwhile, social assistance strategies that can be implemented by social assistants include:
1) enablers, namely trying to create an atmosphere or climate that allows the potential of village communities to develop optimally. Empowerment must be able to free society from cultural and structural barriers that hinder it;
2) strengthening, namely efforts to strengthen the knowledge and abilities possessed by village communities in solving problems and meeting their needs. Empowerment must be able to develop all the capabilities and self-confidence of the community in order to support their independence;
3) protection, namely efforts to protect society, especially weak groups so that they are not oppressed or dominated by strong groups, avoiding and preventing competition or exploitation of strong groups against weak groups. Empowerment must be directed at eliminating all types of discrimination and domination that do not benefit the common people;
4) support, namely efforts to provide guidance and support so that people are able to carry out their roles and tasks in life. Empowerment must be able to support the community so that they do not fall into increasingly weak and marginalized situations and positions;
5) maintenance, namely efforts to maintain conducive conditions so that there is a balance in the distribution of power between various groups in society. Empowerment must be able to guarantee harmony and balance that allows everyone to have the opportunity to do business. (Suharto, 1997).
d. Social Planning. It has a close relationship with social welfare service planning which basically refers to social welfare service activities which generally include family guidance, parental education/care, daily care, child welfare, elderly care, rehabilitation of the disabled/disabled and convicts, services for refugees, youth group activities, health services, school activities, and housing (Marjuki and Suharto, 1996). However, in social planning there are several important aspects that become steps that must be formulated.
According to Edi Suharto (Suharto, 1997) there are five stages, namely:
1) problem identification stage. Attempts to identify the social problems that a program will respond to. Identification of the problem needs to be done comprehensively by using appropriate techniques and indicators. Problem identification is very closely related to needs assessment.
2) goal setting. Goals can be defined as conditions in the future to be achieved. The main purpose of setting goals is to guide the program toward solving problems. Goals can become targets that form the basis for achieving program success. Goals can be started with the SMART formula (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-bound).
3) preparation and development of program plans. In the process of social planning, planners and related parties or stakeholders should jointly develop a comprehensive pattern of intervention plans. There are several things that need to be considered in the program formulation process, including identifying alternative programs, determining the program outcomes of each program. alternatives, determining the cost of implementing the program, finally determining the selection criteria for alternative programs to be selected and implemented. Program selection can be done on a rational basis.
4) program implementation. The program implementation phase essentially refers to changes to the planning process at a lower level of abstraction. There are at least two procedures in planning the program that must be carried out, namely: a) detailing the operational procedures for implementing the program and; b) detailing procedures so that activities are in accordance with the plan.
5) program evaluation. Doing analysis back to the beginning of the planning process whether the goals that have been set can be achieved. Evaluation can only be carried out if the plan has been implemented.
The implementation of social welfare programs through Social Village Adoption is an alternative program if it is assumed that all this time local governments, especially technical agencies, have had difficulties in measuring the achievements of their interventions comprehensively, this could be due to social welfare development still focusing on social assistance which tends to be consumptive and indulged and lacks focus partial) and temporary, the settlement of social problems is not yet substantive, alias is still half-hearted, even though what must be solved is the root of the problem.
ADES can be considered because local potentials and strengths must be comprehensively prepared, planned, integrated and empowered to work on and develop across programs, cross-functions and cross-sectors involving all related regional apparatus components including APBDes sources. By adopting a village as a socially assisted village, of course with indicators according to the characteristics of each region, it will facilitate the POAC process (planning, organizing, actuating and controlling).
ADES, is like raising an orphan (abandoned) foster child who needs attention, affection, education, health care, protection, nutrition, knowledge and a multitude of weaknesses. It is hoped that with recognition as foster parents, of course they will continue to strive so that their foster children are able to rise, be enthusiastic, healthy, develop towards independence according to the dreams of their foster parents.
ADES does not only talk about fulfilling the basic social rights of village communities, but also leads to the creation of other new social welfare sources including facilities, infrastructure, strengthening resource capacity, developing partnerships and networks and strengthening social institutions that have not been accommodated. The village government proactively becomes the driving force starting from planning to conducting continuous monitoring by involving other village government elements. Society is not only an object of empowerment but a subject that must be empowered. ADES works on the basis of needs mapping which is formulated in the framework of a five-year planning document so that it is recognized and can be realized by regional apparatuses in line with the regional head's vision and mission